Juris Doctor (J.D.)

For over a century, Concordia University has graduated students who are both academically and ethically prepared to make a positive impact on their communities. Establishing a law school was a natural extension of Concordia's mission as a Christian university to prepare leaders for the transformation of society. The law school welcomed its first class in the fall of 2012. 

Mission and Values

Concordia University and the School of Law are committed to preparing students for lives of meaningful vocation and service. The law school provides a challenging, supportive, learning environment that integrates faith, learning, and civic engagement in the search for truth, social justice, and an informed voice of reason.

Application Instructions

  1. Obtain a bachelor’s degree from a regionally accredited college or university. You may apply prior to completion, but you must complete your degree before enrolling at Concordia University School of Law. 
  2. Submit an online application and attach required and/or optional documents listed below.
  3. Take the LSAT.
  4. Subscribe to the Credential Assembly Service (CAS) and provide documents required to complete your CAS report.
  5. Ask for assistance as needed.

Application Process

  1. To access the Concordia Law online application, log in using the L Number assigned to you upon creating a JD account with the Law School Admission Council (LSAC). Concordia Law's LSAC code is 4881 and is listed under Member Schools.
  2. After you complete the online application, you can print the application for your review or records, but please do not submit this document to the law school. Instead, click submit and your application will be sent to the law school electronically along with your attached documents. Paper applications are not accepted except upon special request.
  3. The application processing fee of $50 is waived for all applicants. However, before you submit your application, be sure that a CAS Report is added to your cart. A $35 report fee is required to submit your application and there is a $185 fee for the Credential Assembly Service (CAS) report.
  4. Concordia Law cannot review your application until we receive your CAS Report. In order for your CAS report to be released to Concordia Law, LSAC needs to receive official transcripts from any college or university you have attended, a minimum of two letters of recommendation, and a valid LSAT score.
  5. If you experience any difficulty using the online application, contact LSAC's Help Desk at 215-968-1393. Concordia Law's LSAC code is 4881.
  6. The program begins in the fall semester. Applications for admission are accepted through August 1 of the same year or until the class is filled, whichever comes first. However, space and scholarships are limited. It is to your advantage to apply early in the process.

Application Review and Decision Letter Timeline

Upon receipt of your application and CAS report, and verification that all application questions have been answered and all required documents have been received, your file will be reviewed for admission and scholarships. The review process can take up to two weeks. Once the Admission Committee reviews your file, decision letters or further communication from the Office of Admission will be sent within a few days.

Application Requirements for Transfer Students

Transfer students are admitted by the Admissions Committee. The Associate Dean of Academics will determine the number of credits accepted and the curriculum required for an admitted transfer student to graduate from the School of Law in accordance with this policy. 

Concordia Law allows a maximum of 39 credits to transfer in from an ABA-approved law school towards a student's program of study. Students who attend ABA-approved foreign or domestic law schools/programs must obtain a 2.0 (“C”) grade or better for transfer of credit to be granted. Transfer of credit does not apply to courses taken on a pass/fail basis or other ungraded legal experiences. The faculty may consider petitions for exceptions from this policy on a case by case basis.

In determining the curriculum needed to graduate, the Associate Dean of Academics shall allow course(s) taken at the transferor school to satisfy Concordia’s J.D. Program requirement(s) on a determination that the content of the course(s) substantially overlaps and that the course(s) credit is eligible and will be transferred.   

Course grades received from other law schools and/or legal programs are not included in Concordia School of Law’s GPA computation.

Application Requirements for International Students

International students are encouraged to apply to Concordia University School of Law. If you have a foreign law degree, please contact the Concordia Law Admissions office for the most up-to-date information and program options. If you are not a citizen of the United States, you must:

  • hold a degree that is equivalent to a baccalaureate degree;
  • take the Law School Admission Test;
  • sign up with the Law School Admission Council for the Credential Assembly Service (CAS) and then submit all college or university transcripts, and two letters of recommendation, to LSAC;
  • submit all required application materials using our online application by April 1 in order to provide sufficient time to acquire a Visa;
  • submit a copy of your passport showing your official name.

Upon admission to Concordia Law, you will need to submit:

  • a Statement of Financial Guarantee that demonstrates proof of financial support to cover the total cost of attendance for the academic year. This document does not need to be submitted in order for your application to be reviewed, but it must be received before we can issue the I-20 Form necessary to obtain an F-1 Student Visa.

In addition to the above requirements, applicants who are not native English speakers and/or do not hold a baccalaureate degree from an institution at which the primary language of instruction is English are required to:

  • receive a TOEFL score of at least 600 (paper based) or 100 (internet based);
  • arrange for the Education Testing Service (ETS) to forward an official TOEFL score to the Law School Admission Council for inclusion on your CAS report.

An applicant who has studied for more than one academic year outside of the United States, its territories, or Canada must use the LSAC's JD-CAS service for an evaluation of foreign transcripts. This service is included in the CAS subscription fee. A Foreign Credential Evaluation will be completed by the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), and evaluated transcripts will be included with the CAS report sent to Concordia Law.

Graduation

At Concordia Law, the Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree is awarded upon the successful completion of the degree requirements. The degree provides the academic training and skills needed to practice law and the knowledge required to take and pass a state bar exam in order to become a licensed attorney. Although most graduates will initially elect to use their degrees within the legal arena, a J.D. degree has become increasingly recognized as the foundation to prepare and lead law school graduates into a wide variety of careers in business, finance, government, education, and the non-profit sector.

Application for Graduation

Students must submit an Application for Graduation by April 15th if they plan to receive a degree at the conclusion of the upcoming fall term or at the conclusion of the spring or summer term of the following calendar year. Once the necessary paperwork has been submitted and processed, students will receive information regarding the commencement ceremony.

Graduation with Honors

Students who obtain a cumulative grade point average of 3.29 or higher will graduate with honors, as follows:

  • Summa Cum Laude: 3.70 to 4.33
  • Magna Cum Laude: 3.47 to 3.69
  • Cum Laude: 3.29 to 3.46

Students who graduate with honors will receive a notation on their academic transcript.

Degree Requirements

A student’s graduation degree requirements are established based on matriculation date. To qualify for the degree of Juris Doctor, a student must:

  1. Complete a course of study of not fewer than 90 credit hours of course work.
  2. Achieve a final cumulative grade point average of at least 2.0.
  3. Achieve a passing grade in all required courses.
  4. Complete all of the graduation degree requirements no earlier than 24 months and no later than 84 months after a student has commenced studies at the School of Law or a law school from which transfer credit has been accepted.
  5. Complete all required courses:
    1. Business Organizations
    2. Civil Procedure I
    3. Civil Procedure II
    4. Constitutional Law I
    5. Constitutional Law II
    6. Contracts I
    7. Contracts II
    8. Criminal Law
    9. Criminal Procedure
    10. Evidence
    11. Foundations of Justice
    12. Law School Success Skills
    13. Legal Research & Writing I
    14. Legal Research & Writing II
    15. Professional Responsibility    
    16. Property I
    17. Property II
    18. Torts I
    19. Torts II
  6. Complete two (2) Menu Courses from this list:
  • Administrative Law
  • Conflict of Laws
  • Federal Individual Income Tax
  • U.C.C. Article 9: Secured Transactions
  • Wills, Trusts, and Estates
  1. Complete all requirements associated with:
    1. the Legacy Mentor Program,
    2. the Pro Bono Service Requirement,
    3. the Advanced Writing Requirement, and
    4. the Experiential Course Requirement.

a.  Legacy Mentor Program

The Legacy Mentor Program is designed to provide law students with opportunities to interact with members of the legal profession, to understand the social and ethical responsibilities of the legal profession, and to prepare students to create change, serve others, and contribute to the profession. The mentorship program is a graduation requirement at the School of Law. All full-time and part-time students are required to enroll in the mentorship program each regular semester starting with the first regular semester the student attends Concordia through the student’s sixth semester. (Transfer students must contact the Director of Experiential Learning to create a course plan to complete the mentorship requirement.) A total of two (2) credit hours are awarded for successful completion of the mentorship requirements. It is the student's responsibility to ensure the student is enrolled in the appropriate level of mentorship each semester until the graduation requirement is complete.

b.  Pro Bono Service Requirement

The pro bono program at Concordia Law is mandatory and institutionally supported. Each student is required to complete 50 hours of law-related public service prior to graduation.  Students may participate in the pro bono program after completion of their first semester of study and after attending a required pro bono program orientation. Students must be in good academic standing to participate. In accordance with Idaho Rule of Professional Conduct Rule 6.1, the substantial majority of a student’s pro bono work shall consist of providing direct legal services to persons of limited means.  The work must be legally-substantive, supervised by a licensed attorney, and performed without any remuneration, either monetary or to satisfy any other academic requirements. Under the supervision of the Director of Experiential Learning and a student-run Pro Bono Service Board, the School of Law has established partnerships with organizations that provide legal services to underserved populations in a wide variety of settings including legal aid organizations, volunteer lawyer programs, government agencies, and charitable organizations. A list of pre-approved opportunities can be found on Hire Concordia Law. Students are encouraged to identify their own opportunities for service, but all projects must be pre-approved by the Director of Experiential Learning to be eligible for pro bono credit.  Refer to the Pro Bono Program Handbook for more information.

c.  Advanced Writing Requirement

Following the first year of law school and prior to graduation, each student must complete a rigorous legal writing requirement.

d.  Experiential Course Requirement (formerly Professional Skills)

Following the first year of law school and prior to graduation, each student must complete one or more experiential learning course(s), totaling at least six credit hours. The experiential learning courses must provide instruction in professional legal skills which are generally regarded as necessary for effective and responsible participation in the legal profession. An experiential learning course may be (i) a simulation course; (ii) a clinical course; (iii) an externship; or (iv) an eligible additional Advanced Writing Requirement course. To satisfy this requirement, a course must be primarily experiential in nature and must:

      (i)    integrate doctrine, theory, skills, and legal ethics and engage students in performance of one or more of the professional skills identified in Standard 302;
      (ii)   develop the concepts underlying the professional skills being taught;
      (iii)  p
rovide multiple opportunities for performance; and
      (iv)  
provide opportunities for self-evaluation.

A course used to satisfy the Advanced Writing Requirement may not also be used to satisfy the Experiential Course Requirement.

Academic Performance

Good Standing

Students are in good standing if their overall cumulative grade point average is least 2.0 at the end of each term. Students not in good standing will be subject to academic probation and, if applicable, dismissal. 

Academic Probation

Academic Probation is subject to and controlled by the provisions on Academic Dismissal. Academic Probation is not a prerequisite to Academic Dismissal.  

Probation for Failure to Maintain a 2.0 Cumulative Grade-Point Average  

A student whose cumulative GPA is less than 2.0 at the end of a term will be placed on academic probation at that time for the duration of their next semester.  The student will receive a letter from the Associate Dean of Academics announcing the student’s probationary status, as well as the procedures to follow and the student’s responsibilities. 

Where the student subsequently completes the probationary semester, achieves a minimum 2.0 cumulative GPA, and satisfies the conditions imposed by the Associate Dean of Academics, the student shall be considered in Good Standing and may continue without academic restrictions.  Where, however, the student fails to achieve at least a minimum 2.0 cumulative GPA at the end of the probationary period, the student will be subject to academic dismissal.

Required Condition: Academic Supervision Plan

A student placed on Academic Probation must meet with the Director of the Academic Success Program to develop an Academic Supervision Plan.  A copy of the Academic Supervision Plan must be filed with the Student Records Coordinator by the date stated in the probationary status notification letter.

Academic Dismissal

Dismissal Following First Semester

A student whose cumulative GPA is below 1.70 after the first semester will be subject to academic dismissal.

Second and Subsequent Semesters 

A student who has completed two or more semesters and whose cumulative GPA has twice been below 2.0 at the end of any semester will be subject to academic dismissal.      

Procedures for Students Subject to Academic Dismissal

A student subject to academic dismissal will receive an opportunity to petition a faculty-designated committee, for permission to continue the student’s studies. The student must submit the petition to the Associate Dean of Academics within five (5) business days of receipt of the dismissal letter.  The student must show, 1) the student’s performance was the result of conditions not reasonably within the student’s control, 2) the conditions that caused the student’s poor performance have ceased or will cease before the student resumes study, and 3) the student possesses the requisite ability and the prior disqualification does not indicate a lack of capacity to complete the course of study. 

The faculty-designated committee will make a decision on the petition within five business days of its receipt.  In deciding the petition, the faculty-designated committee may consider information from faculty members and staff. The faculty-designated committee may deny the petition, may allow the student to continue immediately, may allow the student to continue after a set period of time, or may defer deciding the petition until it receives further information.

If the faculty-designated committee denies the student’s petition, the student can appeal to the Dean of the School of Law. The student should submit the appeal in writing to the Dean of the School of Law  within three (3) business days of having received the faculty’s decision, including a copy of the petition to the faculty/committee, a description of the process used to bring the petition to the faculty/committee, and any concerns that the student has over the proper application of policies or procedures, or concerns about the fundamental fairness of the process. The Dean of the School of Law will review the appeal on the basis of the proper application of this process and related policies and the fundamental fairness of the process. The Dean of the School of Law will endeavor to render a decision within three (3) business days of having received the student’s appeal.   The decision of the Dean of the School of Law is final.

A student who is subject to academic dismissal may not rely on any representations that they may continue in law school outside of the petition and appeal process described above.

Dismissed Students 

Students who are dismissed may apply for re-admission.  Applicants for re-admission must go through the ordinary admission process and satisfy the requirements of the ABA Standards pertaining to readmission.  Students who are re-admitted in such circumstances begin law school anew and neither receive credit for their prior grades nor have their prior grades included in their grade-point average. A re-admitted student will be subject to the published Academic Performance standards and will be considered a “First Semester” student for the purpose of Academic Dismissal.

Special Offerings for the School of Law

3+1 JD to MBA

The 3+1 JD to MBA program reflects an explicit partnership between the Boise Law School and the Concordia Portland School of Management. Students will complete the Concordia J.D.in 3 years, consistent with ABA requirements. After successful completion of the J.D. degree, students can begin the accelerated (1-year, 19 remaining credit) MBA the next fall term. Up to 19 credits of MBA requirements can be met by approved LAW course substitutions, as outlined below. Students can apply to the 3+1 JD to MBA program directly at the time of applying to the Concordia Law School or any time during their course of study in the Law School. Satisfactory academic standing the in the J.D. program and the earned J.D. degree are required for acceptance into the MBA program. No MBA classes may be taken concurrent with J.D. courses. Only LAW courses with a grade of 2.0 or higher may be applied as substitutes. Students completing a J.D. degree at law school other than Concordia-Portland may be reviewed on a case by case basis to determine if an accelerated Concordia MBA pathway is feasible. Specific curriculum from the incoming law program would need to be evaluated by the Dean of the School of Management.

MBA 501FOUNDATIONS4
MBA 502FINANCIAL REPORTING AND CONTROL3
MBA 503LEADING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE3
MBA 504MARKETING3
JD Substitution:
BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS
MBA 507COMPETITION AND STRATEGY3
MBA 508FINANCE3
JD Substitution:
Four credits - LAW Externships, Clinics, Practicums, or other Experiential courses
JD Substitution:
LEGAL RESEARCH AND WRITING I
LEGAL RESEARCH AND WRITING II
Nine credits from:
CONTRACTS I
CONTRACTS II INTERPRETATION, PERFORMANCE AND ENFORCEMENT
PROPERTY
BANKRUPTCY
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
FEDERAL INCOME TAX
U.C.C. ARTICLE 9: SECURED TRANSACTIONS
EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR LAW
INSURANCE LAW
INTERNATIONAL LAW
REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
WILLS, TRUSTS, AND ESTATES
WORKERS' COMPENSATION LAW
CORPORATE TAX
Total Credits19

Two-Year Foreign Attorney J.D. Program

Concordia University School of Law offers an accelerated two-year Juris Doctor program geared toward international students who already hold a law degree from a country other than the United States.

Application Requirements for Tw0-Year Foreign Attorney J.D.

Students applying to the Two-Year Foreign Attorney J.D. program are considered transfer students at Concordia University School of Law, must complete a transfer student application through the Law School Admission Council (LSAC), and must provide official transcripts for evaluation, as well as two letters of recommendation. Students applying to this program are not required to sit for the LSAT exam, but may be asked to provide a TOEFL score if their program of study was not in English, or if the student does not have an advanced degree in an English-based program. For students who have completed a foreign law program that meets American Bar Association (ABA) standards, Concordia Law will accept up to 30 transfer credits in recognition of the completion of that degree program toward their juris doctor degree. Because of this, our Foreign Attorney J.D. Program is only two years long, rather than the traditional three. Students will complete a prescribed course of study that focuses on bar-tested foundational courses, while also providing an opportunity to take elective courses aligned with students' interests or related to their intended area of practice. For more information please contact the Office of Admission at (208) 639-5440 or lawadmission@cu-portland.edu.

McKay Cunningham, J.D., Associate Professor, mccunningham@cu-portland.edu

Emily Donnellan, M.L.I.S., Assistant Professor, edonnellan@cu-portland.edu

Jason Gill Dykstra, J.D., Assistant Professor, jdykstra@cu-portland.edu

Tenielle Fordyce-Ruff, J.D., Associate Professor, tfordyce@cu-portland.edu

Michael Greenlee, J.D., Associate Professor, mgreenlee@cu-portland.edu

Victoria J. Haneman, LL.M., Professor, vhaneman@cu-portland.edu

Joseph M. Isanga, J.S.D., Associate Professor, jisanga@cu-portland.edu

Latonia Haney Keith, J.D., Assistant Professor, lkeith@cu-portland.edu

Elena Langan, J.D., Professor, elangan@cu-portland.edu

Jodi Nafzger, J.D., Associate Professor, jnafzger@cu-portland.edu

Greg Sergienko, J.D., Professor, gsergienko@cu-portland.edu

Ryan B. Stoa, J.D., Associate Professor, rstoa@cu-portland.edu

Katharine Van Tassel, M.P.H., Professor, kvantassel@cu-portland.edu

Click on Course Code to see Course Description
FIRST YEAR
Required Courses (31 credits)
LAW 101SUCCESS SKILLS1
LAW 601CIVIL PROCEDURE I3
LAW 602CIVIL PROCEDURE II3
LAW 605CONSTITUTIONAL LAW I3
LAW 608PROPERTY LAW I3
LAW 609CONTRACTS I3
LAW 610CONTRACTS II INTERPRETATION, PERFORMANCE AND ENFORCEMENT3
LAW 613CRIMINAL LAW3
LAW 623LEGAL RESEARCH AND WRITING I3
LAW 625LEGAL RESEARCH AND WRITING II3
LAW 626TORTS I3
MENTORSHIP: 1L - Fall (0); 1L - Spring (0)
UPPER LEVEL
Required Courses (30 credits)
LAW 606CONSTITUTIONAL LAW II3
LAW 614CRIMINAL PROCEDURE3
LAW 617EVIDENCE3
LAW 618FOUNDATIONS OF JUSTICE3
LAW 620PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY3
LAW 636BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS4
LAW 650PROPERTY LAW II3
LAW 658TORTS II3
LAW 662WILLS, TRUSTS, AND ESTATES3
LAW 651MENTORSHIP (2L - Fall [0.5]; 2L - Spring [0.5])1
LAW 651MENTORSHIP (3L - Fall [0.5]; 3L - Spring [0.5])1
Pro Bono Service Requirement (0 credits)0
Advanced Writing Requirement (2-3 credits)2-3
Choose one course from the following:
LITIGATION PLANNING AND DRAFTING (3)
JUDICIAL WRITING (2)
INTENSIVE LEGAL WRITING (3)
ADVANCED APPELLATE ADVOCACY (2)
ADVANCED LEGAL WRITING: RHETORIC (3)
ADVANCED LEGAL WRITING-LOGIC AND NARRATIVE (2)
Experiential Course Requirement (6 credits)6
(Externships, Practicums, Clinics, or eligible Advance Writing courses not used to satisfy that requirement)
Electives20-21
Complete two (2) Menu Courses from the following list (4-6 credits):
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW (3)
CONFLICT OF LAWS (2-3 credits)
FEDERAL INCOME TAX (3)
U.C.C. ARTICLE 9: SECURED TRANSACTIONS (2)
WILLS, TRUSTS, AND ESTATES (3)
Additional Electives to bring overall total to 90 credits (14-17 credits)
Total Credits89

LAW 101      SUCCESS SKILLS      Credit: 1

Success Skills familiarizes students with the process of legal education and introduces the foundational skills required for optimal law school performance. The course covers reading and briefing cases,
notetaking, synthesizing rules, creating course outlines, and drafting legal analysis in the context of the law school exam.

LAW 601      CIVIL PROCEDURE I      Credits: 3

Pre-trial and trial proceedings under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, including pleadings, motions, discovery, jury trial rights, preliminary and permanent injunctive relief, judgments, and res judicata.

LAW 602      CIVIL PROCEDURE II      Credits: 3

Personal and subject-matter jurisdiction; venue; state law applied in federal courts; federal law applied in state courts.

LAW 603      WRITING FOR THE BAR EXAM      Credit: 1

This course teaches the writing, analysis, and time-management skills needed for success on the essay portions of the Uniform Bar Exam – the Multistate Performance Test and the Multistate Essay Examination. This course supplements, but does not replace, a traditional commercial bar review course. (Upper Level).

LAW 604      MOOT COURT COMPETITION      Credit: 1

The course will requires students to compete as members of a team in the American Bar Association Law Student Division’s National Appellate Advocacy Competition by submitting a brief and participating in oral argument based on a hypothetical appeal to the United States Supreme Court. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 671 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 605      CONSTITUTIONAL LAW I      Credits: 3

Federalism and the Separation of Powers. (Upper Level).

LAW 606      CONSTITUTIONAL LAW II      Credits: 3

The Bill of Rights and related individual liberties. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 605 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 607      INTENSIVE LEGAL ANALYSIS      Credits: 3

Intensive Legal Analysis is designed to help students develop and refine the analysis and problem-solving skills that are required for optimal success in law school, the bar exam, and in the practice of law. (Upper Level)
Prerequisite: LAW 625 with a 1.00 of higher.

LAW 608      PROPERTY LAW I      Credits: 3

This course begins with theoretical and policy foundations for property law. The course then includes a study of adverse possession, estates and future interests, the Rule Against Perpetuities, rights and obligations inherent in concurrent ownership of real property, landlord-tenant law, and finally eminent domain and regulatory taking jurisprudence. (Upper Level).

LAW 609      CONTRACTS I      Credits: 3

The creation of contracts and quasi contracts, including the elements of contracts, quasi contracts, and promissory estoppel; formalities relating to contract, including the parol evidence rule and the statute of frauds; capacity, legality.

LAW 610      CONTRACTS II INTERPRETATION, PERFORMANCE AND ENFORCEMENT      Credits: 3

Interpretation, performance or discharge, and enforcement of agreements, including contractual damages, specific performance, reformation, rescission, restitution.
Prerequisites: LAW 609 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 611      CONTRACTS PRACTICUM      Credits: 2

Contracts Practicum will provide students with experience in applying the principles learned in Contracts I and II through drafting and other exercises. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 610 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 612      CLINIC      Credits: 1-6

Clinics offer students the opportunity for attorney-supervised live-client and real-life practice experiences and to reflect on those experiences and on the values and responsibilities of the legal profession and to develop the ability to assess performance and competence at defined lawyering skills. (Upper Level).

LAW 613      CRIMINAL LAW      Credits: 3

Theories of criminal liability, essential elements of criminal responsibility, classifications of crimes, elements of crime at common law and by statute, defenses to criminal responsibility, theories of punishment and consequence, corporate criminal liability.

LAW 614      CRIMINAL PROCEDURE      Credits: 3

Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure and the Idaho Rules of Criminal Procedure, constitutional requirements relating to the prosecution of persons for crimes, procedures for prosecution and defense of those accused of criminal conduct, judicial control of police practices by means of exclusionary rule, including search and seizure, and police interrogation, fundamentals of procedural due process, including defendant’s privilege against self-incrimination, the right to counsel, right to trial, and double jeopardy, decision to prosecute, preliminary examination, bail, discovery, plea bargaining, confrontation, speedy trial, the relationship between fair trial and free press, habeas corpus, and cruel and unusual punishment.

LAW 615      CRIMINAL LAW PRACTICUM      Credits: 2

Criminal Law Practicum will provide an opportunity to apply criminal law and criminal procedure concepts. The course will cover such topics as plea-bargaining and drafting warrant applications, Brady and Jencks Act disclosure, indictments, motions to suppress and dismiss, and sentencing memoranda. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 613 and LAW 614 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 616      CRIMINAL ADJUDICATION      Credits: 3

Examines the adjudication phase of the criminal process, focusing primarily on the constitutional doctrines regulating the adjudicative process. The course will cover topics such as prosecutorial discretion, selective prosecution, grand juries, right to counsel, discovery, plea bargaining, jury rights, double jeopardy, and appeals. (Upper Level).

LAW 617      EVIDENCE      Credits: 3

Federal Rules of evidence, common laws foundations of rules of evidence, Idaho Rules of evidence, admission of evidence, authentication, credibility, witnesses, hearsay, rules relating to extrinsic policies, documents and papers, issues relating to electronic media and technological advances. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 601 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 618      FOUNDATIONS OF JUSTICE      Credits: 3

Introduction to the ideal of law, including religious, historical and comparative perspectives, and the American practice of law, including the obligations of an attorney and the challenges of practicing law.

LAW 619      PROPERTY      Credits: 4

Theories of real and personal property, types of property, ownership, possession and use of property, types of property rights, transfer and conveyance of property rights, systems of recording and determining property rights, bailment, basic intellectual property rights. (Upper Level).

LAW 620      PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY      Credits: 3

Issues relating to the ethical practice of law pursuant to standards articulated by the American Bar Association and the Idaho State Bar, licensure and licensure processes, treatment of misconduct, suspension and disbarment, processes of the Bar Association regarding the enforcement of ethical requirements, the role of courts in enforcing ethical requirements, requirements of ethical legal practice, client relationships, economic issues, fiduciary issues, loyalty and conflicts of interest, honesty and disclosure, relationships with the Courts, relationships with other legal counsel.

LAW 621      FEDERAL COURTS      Credits: 3

Federal Courts provides advanced knowledge the jurisdiction and procedure of the federal courts under Article III of the U.S. Constitution and federal statutes. It will cover the law applied in federal courts, the power of federal courts over practice, limits on jurisdiction of the federal courts, and obligation of state courts to follow federal law. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 602 and LAW 605 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 623      LEGAL RESEARCH AND WRITING I      Credits: 3

Fundamentals of legal research, use of traditional law library resources and tools, use of electronic and online legal research tools, essential strategies of effective written communication, principles of clarity in written communication, understanding audience environment and needs in written communication, drafting and writing motions, discovery, trial and appellate briefs.

LAW 624      CIVIL RIGHTS      Credits: 3

Covers the substantive, ethical and strategic issues involved in litigating civil rights actions. This course will allow students to both learn basic principles of governmental liability/defenses and apply their knowledge of torts, constitutional law and civil procedure in litigation setting. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 605 with a 1.00 or higher and LAW 606 with a 1.00 or higher or concurrent enrollment.

LAW 625      LEGAL RESEARCH AND WRITING II      Credits: 3

Advanced research as to legislative, case and constitutional history, drafting and writing various legal documents including transactional documents, contracts, deeds and leases, legal correspondence, electronic communication, client communication, negotiating materials.
Prerequisites: LAW 623 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 626      TORTS I      Credits: 3

Overview of intentional torts and defenses to them; negligence, including damages, contributory and comparative negligence, and defenses to claims of negligence.

LAW 627      FOUNDATIONS OF LEGAL ANALYSIS      Credits: 3

This course is designed to develop six foundational skills expected of lawyers regardless of the area of law in which the skills arise: sort detailed factual materials and separate relevant from irrelevant facts, analyze statutory, case, and administrative materials for applicable principles of law, apply the relevant law to the relevant facts in a manner likely to resolve a client’s problem, identify and resolve ethical dilemmas, when present, communicate effectively in writing, and complete a lawyering task within time constraints. This course is designed to ensure that the student is practice ready after graduation and will also aid significantly in preparing the student for the Multi-State Performance Test (MPT) portion of the bar exam. The MPT comprises 20% of the total point allocation of the Idaho Bar Exam and other Uniform Bar Exam jurisdictions.

LAW 628      EXTERNSHIP      Credits: 1-6

The externship program combines field work in a diversity of practice settings with a contemporaneous class, regularly scheduled tutorial, or other guided reflection designed to reinforce lawyering skills and the social and ethical responsibilities of the profession. Placements must be supervised by a lawyer and the work must be substantive legal work. Students may earn 1-6 credits depending on the number of hours worked in the field. (Upper Level).

LAW 629      EXTERNSHIP SEMINAR      Credit: 1

The externship course is designed to complement students' externship field work and promote reflective learning. Students will be responsible for selected readings, journal assignments, and a final oral or written presentation. Students must have secured an externship before enrolling in the externship course. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: Cumulative GPA of 2.0 and LAW 628 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 630      ADMINISTRATIVE LAW      Credits: 3

Students will learn how administrative agencies function, including the procedural rules governing them, how courts interpret statutes creating them and review administrative decisions, how agencies provide expertise or the ability to act when conflict prevents legislative action, and limitations on the delegation of powers to administrative agencies. (Upper Level).

LAW 631      LITIGATION PLANNING AND DRAFTING      Credits: 3

Litigation Planning and Drafting covers both strategy and drafting in a real world context. It covers initial case evaluation, drafting pleadings and discovery requests, affidavits, motions, proposed orders, trial briefs, and other documents lawyers produce. It will provide students with an opportunity to both deepen and expand on the skills learned in LRW I and II, to evaluate and support a client's claim, and to sharpen the skills necessary to become a successful litigator. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 625 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 632      JUDICIAL WRITING      Credits: 2

Introduction to the various types of writing done by a judicial clerk or judge; includes in-class writing and editing assignments, reviewing real-world examples from prominent legal writers, judges, and authors to understand how legal writing influences the outcome in specific litigation contexts; students produce a bench brief. (Upper Level).

LAW 633      CONFLICT OF LAWS      Credits: 3

Examines problems that arise when disputes implicate the laws of multiple jurisdictions.  When a case has a connection to more than one state (or more than one country), or involves the intersection of both state and federal interests, how should a court decide which law to apply? (Upper Level).

LAW 634      ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION      Credits: 2

Operation and efficacy of methods of resolving disputes without resort to litigation, including arbitration, mediation and settlement, typical rules relating to such processes, enforcement of alternative methods of resolution, negotiation tactics and strategies, best practices in negotiation, ethics in negotiation, exercises and practice focusing on negotiation skills, arbitration and mediation. (Upper Level).

LAW 635      BANKRUPTCY      Credits: 3

Bankruptcy covers the procedural and substantive rules of federal bankruptcy law. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 601 and LAW 602 and LAW 619 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 636      BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS      Credits: 4

Essentials of agency and partnership law and theories of artificial entities, purposes, characteristics and reasons for choosing alternative entity forms, corporations, general and limited partnerships, sole proprietorships, LLCs, LLPs, charitable and philanthropic entity forms, formation and creation of entities, operation and governance of entities, disregarding entity form, dissolution of entities.

LAW 637      BUSINESS ORGANIZATION PRACTICUM      Credits: 2

The Business Organizations Practicum will provide an opportunity to apply the law of business organizations in a practical concept. Students will work on discerning the interest of parties who own or are forming a business, advise them, and draft legal instruments to effectuate. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 636 and LAW 620 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 640      EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR LAW      Credits: 3

Foundational law of agency, employment law, worker safety, discrimination, hiring, retirement systems, wrongful discharge, employment at will, employment contracts, wage laws, child labor laws, public and private unemployment security systems, benefits issues, ADA. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 610 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 641      ENVIRONMENTAL LAW      Credits: 3

Federal and state regulation of environmental matters relating to pollution control and remediation, resource conservation and management, environmental implications of planning and zoning, and common law remedies. (Upper Level).

LAW 642      FAMILY LAW      Credits: 3

Students will learn the fundamental framework governing marriage, divorce, parenting, child support, property distribution and spousal maintenance. (Upper Level).

LAW 644      IMMIGRATION LAW      Credits: 3

This course covers U.S. Immigration Law. The class will focus on the immigration statutes, the U.S. Code of Regulations, and related case law. It will also provide an understanding of how the U.S. government administers immigration law. At the end of the course a student should be able to review a fact pattern involving immigration law, recognize the pertinent legal issues, and analyze the issues and advise a client or agency. (Upper Level).

LAW 646      INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY      Credits: 3

Federal law relating to copyright, trademarks, and patents, consideration of trade secrets as intellectual property, global aspects of intellectual property, obtaining and protecting intellectual property rights, issues relating to economic conversion of intellectual property rights, enforcing intellectual property rights. (Upper Level).

LAW 647      INTERNATIONAL LAW      Credits: 3

Sources, interpretation, and enforcement of international law under the Vienna Convention, U.N. Charter, and other instruments of international, including custom, equity, treaties, and general principles of law. (Upper Level).

LAW 649      CORPORATE TAX      Credits: 3

This course examines the taxation of corporations and their shareholders focusing on corporate formation, capital structure, non-liquidating distributions, liquidations, reorganizations, and the treatment of tax attributes. Theories of tax policy are discussed throughout the semester. Practical application of economic theories relevant to transactional law practice are framed throughout the course. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 636 and LAW 657.

LAW 650      PROPERTY LAW II      Credits: 3

This course begins with a study of a real estate transaction. The course examines deeds and mortgages, forms of title assurance, title covenants, and title insurance. The course analyzes the recording system and the recording statutes, before turning to landlord/tenant law, nuisance law, and the law of fixtures. (Upper Level).

LAW 651      MENTORSHIP      Credit: 1

Students are paired with lawyers and judges in the community who will expose them to a wide range of lawyering tasks and the ethical responsibilities of the profession. Second and third year students will participate in an academic credit program that combines field work with a contemporaneous seminar.

LAW 654      BAR EXAM PLANNING AND MBE WORKSHOP      Credit: 1

This course familiarizes students with the components of the bar exam, the application process, and learning strategies necessary for effective bar exam preparation. In addition, this course teaches multiple choice strategy, integrating substantive review of one topic tested on the multiple choice component of the exam. (Upper Level).

LAW 655      REMEDIES      Credits: 3

Advanced study of contract, tort and other remedies, legal remedies, compensatory and consequential damages, equitable remedies, injunctive remedies and court regulation of conduct, rescission, restitution, specific performance, temporary and permanent remedies, punitive damages, enforcement of remedies.

LAW 657      FEDERAL INCOME TAX      Credits: 3

Essential concepts of the federal individual income tax. (Upper Level).

LAW 658      TORTS II      Credits: 3

Strict liability, including liability for abnormally dangerous activities and products liability, and emerging areas of tort law. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 626 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 659      TRIAL PRACTICE AND ADVOCACY      Credits: 2

Advanced study and practice in trial and advocacy situations, including opening statements and closing arguments, examination of witnesses, introduction of evidence, and effective structuring of cases. Course may be divided into criminal and civil tracks. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 617 and LAW 625 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 660      U.C.C. ARTICLE 9: SECURED TRANSACTIONS      Credits: 2

Covers all aspects of security interests in personal property, including creation, perfection, priorities (between competing security interests and between security interests and other property interest), and enforcement of security interests, including repossession/sale of collateral and distribution of sale proceeds. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 610 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 661      WATER LAW      Credits: 3

Obtaining, using, protecting and enforcing the legal right to use water, particularly in Idaho and the Western United States, with focus on appropriation, beneficial use, prioritization, surface water issues, ground water issues, management systems, and contrast with Eastern Riparian systems. (Upper Level).

LAW 662      WILLS, TRUSTS, AND ESTATES      Credits: 3

Testate and interstate post mortem succession or property, testamentary capacity, rules relating to the expression of testamentary intent, methods of post mortem transfer of property, drafting and implementing wills, trusts, creating the fiduciary relationship, characteristics of the fiduciary relationship, fundamentals of estate planning, life insurance as an estate planning device, legal processes and procedures for accomplishing post mortem succession, creditor's rights. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 619 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 663      ESTATE PLANNING PRACTICUM      Credits: 2

Capstone course for Trusts and Estates, Gift and Estate Tax, and Community Property, with simulated practice experiences including interviewing and counseling clients, drafting estate planning documents, drafting letters to clients, counseling executors and trustees, etc. (Upper Level).

LAW 664      INTENSIVE LEGAL WRITING      Credits: 3

This course covers both strategy and drafting in a real world context. It may cover drafting office memorandum, legislation, contracts, complaints, affidavits, motions, proposed orders, trial briefs, and other documents lawyers produce. It will provide students with an opportunity to both deepen and expand on the skills learned in LRW I and II, to evaluate and support a client's claim, and to sharpen the skills necessary to become a successful litigator. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 625 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 665      ADVANCED APPELLATE ADVOCACY      Credits: 2

Provides students with an opportunity to hone their brief writing skills to become more effective advocates. The course provides valuable skills regarding organization of legal arguments and effective presentation. The course is valuable for students who intend on participating in the Moot Court competitions, but it will also provide students with an opportunity to work with current appellate litigation to sharpen the legal skills necessary to become a successful practitioner. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 625 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 667      EVIDENCE PRACTICUM      Credits: 2

This course is a practical skills course of the rules governing the admissibility or exclusion of evidence at trial. Subjects include competency of witnesses, direct and cross-examination of witnesses, the rule against hearsay and its exceptions, expert and lay opinion testimony, privileged communications, relevancy, procedural considerations, burden of proof, presumptions, form and type of objections, authentication, the best evidence rule and the use of demonstrative and scientific evidence. This is a bread and butter course for every lawyer, taught for practical application. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 617 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 668      ADVANCED LEGAL RESEARCH      Credits: 2,3

Advanced Legal Research builds practical research skills and knowledge, utilizing realistic fact-based scenarios, readings and lectures to create advanced researchers. This class takes advantage of the students’ growing legal knowledge and analytical skills to expand legal research capabilities. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 625 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 669      ADVANCED LEGAL WRITING: RHETORIC      Credits: 3

This course will cover advanced techniques of rhetoric in support of students’ ability to construct persuasive legal arguments in briefs, memoranda, and other documents. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 625 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 671      MOOT COURT      Credit: 1

The course will hone students’ writing and oral advocacy skills in preparation for the students to compete on their own, not as a team, in the Concordia Law Moot Court Competition by submitting a brief and participating in oral argument based on a hypothetical appeal to an appellate court. (Upper level)
Prerequisites: LAW 625 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 672      DEPOSITION PRACTICUM      Credits: 2

Teaches students the art of taking and defending effective depositions. Covers substantive and procedural law, as well as the ethical rules pertaining to depositions. Students will gain experience in preparing and performing depositions of lay and expert witnesses, obtaining and developing facts, preserving testimony, and the various uses of depositions.

LAW 673      NATURAL RESOURCES LAW      Credits: 3

Current topics relating to the policy, law and regulations relating to natural resources use and conservation as determined by instructor. Examples include property rights, access and eminent domain, impact of environmental regulation on natural resource development, disasters and spills relating to natural resource development. (Upper Level).

LAW 675      REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS      Credits: 3

Examines the legal and business foundations for real estate transactions; employs a transactional approach and planning problems; reviews both commercial and residential real estate transactions; students explore investment analysis, ownership issues, anticipate legal disputes that arise at the contract stage securing financing, and legal issues that could arise post-closing. (Upper Level).

LAW 676      REAL ESTATE PRACTICUM      Credits: 2

The course will cover drafting of documents such as letters of intent, real estate brokerage agreements, commercial leases and subleases, contracts for sale of lots, deeds and easement agreements, and basic construction documents. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 610 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 677      INTERNET LAW      Credits: 2,3

Covers major federal statutes and regulations relating to the internet; jurisdictional issues; contracts; trespass and the Computer Fraud & Abuse Act (CFAA); intellectual property (copyright, trademark and domain names); pornography; defamation and information torts; privacy; spam; blogs and social networking sites. Antitrust and other topics as time permits. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 601 and LAW 602 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 678      ADVANCED LEGAL WRITING-LOGIC AND NARRATIVE      Credits: 2

Students will be able to identify and use the basics of logic and its application to legal reasoning. Students will also be able to identify various forms of narrative devices and their application to legal writing. Students will also apply the techniques learned to their legal writing. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: LAW 625 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 681      LAW REVIEW SEMINAR      Credit: 1

The Concordia University Law Review is a legal periodical edited and published by Concordia University law students. Law Review membership is a rewarding educational experience that helps students refine their legal research, writing, and analytical skills, and affords a unique opportunity to work with legal professionals and faculty members. (Upper Level)
Prerequisite: Instructor permission required.

LAW 682      LAW REVIEW PRODUCTION      Credit: 1

Through this course, members of the Concordia Law Review select, edit and publish high-quality, general legal scholarship by creating one or more law review issues. The course aims to develop an understanding of the legal publishing process, as well as impart the significance and societal role of academic legal research. (Upper Level)
Prerequisites: 18 credits and permission of instructor.

LAW 683      INSURANCE LAW      Credits: 3

The course is an upper division course. Students will learn the fundamental risk-spreading function of insurance, rules of interpretation specific to insurance law, the standard first-person and liability insurance policies and their interpretation, and regulation of insurance. (Upper Division)
Prerequisites: LAW 609, LAW 610, LAW 626 with a 1.00 or higher.

LAW 687      HEALTH LAW      Credits: 3

This course will help students understand the regulation, structure, and financing of the American health care system including public and private insurance, access to low income and uninsured, and fraud and abuse laws. (Upper Level).

LAW 688      WORKERS' COMPENSATION LAW      Credits: 3

This course will provide the law student with a broad understanding of the workers’ compensation system in use today established to compensate and treat injured workers involved in work accidents. (Upper Level).